Deployment Year Description


C-gen's mission is to make use of a Wirewalker and apply Livewire technology to create a small, wave-powered generator. Designed to generate 1-10 Watts, the goal is to be able to power instruments aboard the Wirewalker using wave energy.


Scheduled for Spring of 2015, the Tasmanian Tidal Dissipation Experiment is designed to investigate the hypothesis that considerable tidal dissipation occurs where propagating low-mode internal tides meet steep continental slopes. T-TIDE will involve thorough 2-D and 3-D modeling of the seafloor, making use of gliders for identification of dynamic processes and mooring placement, and an encompassing Process Experiment in order to collect data.
Wirewalker 2000-present The Wirewalker is an ocean profiler designed to traverse a column of water by using the power of ocean waves as propulsion. By using a ratcheting cam system, the Wirewalker can precisely profile while carrying data collecting instruments.
project description
HDSS (R/V Revelle High Definition Sonar System)


In the mid 1990’s, OPG developed a long-range Doppler sonar for permanent installation on the R/V Roger Revelle. A dual-frequency (50-140 kHz) system was designed and constructed at Scripps and installed in December 1999. Termed the Hydrographic Doppler Sonar System (HDSS), it has been operating continuously, with incremental improvements, since January 2000. The sonar has been used in the NSF experiments HOME, EPIC, IWAP and SWIR as well as the ONR Sea of Japan, ASIAEX, NLIWI, and AESOP experiments.
project description
Dynamo 2012 Dynamo illustrated that sub-kilometer scale horizontal variability measurements are feasible in the mixed-layer and upper-ocean. An array or free-drifting cluster of Wirewalkers is a powerful tool for quantifying this variability.
project description

SWIRM (South West Indian Ridge Mixing)

2008 The SWIRM expedition focused on searching for giant internal waves in the Southwest Indian Ridge, which encompasses an expanse of rough seafloor terrain due to shifting tectonic plates. This kind of underwater topography proved to be the cause of the massive internal waves, particularly in the Atlantis II fracture zone.
more information
Internal Waves and Mixing above the South-West Indian Ridge
SCS07 (South China Sea) 2007 During SCS07, OPG was able to identify an important mechanism for scattering and dissipating low-mode internal tides by using F-CTDs, HDSS, and acoustic backscatter.
project description
AESOP 2006 Assessing the Effects of Submesoscale Ocean Parameterizations (AESOP) was an experiment designed to test the ability of numerical models to simulate coastal phenomena. As part of that experiment, OPG moored R/P FLIP just offshore of Carmel CA, and made intensive measurements of internal waves and currents.
more info
Non Linear Internak Wave Initiative (NLIWI) 2005 NLIWI profiled regions of the South China Sea using OPG's HDSS and F-CTDs to investigate non-linear internal waves. The two main goals of this project were to document the form of evolving solitary wave packets and to understand the source of turbulence found in the wake of nonlinear wave trains. NLIWI discovered that huge internal solitary waves traverse the deep central SCS during periods of spring tide, and that they follow no conclusive pattern.
project description
HOME (Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment) Near Field 2002 The HOME Nearfield program was designed to test the hypothesis that rough underwater terrain is responsible for global mixing. This was achieved by using F-CTD profiling, PADS, and high-resolution DEEP-8 sonar to discover the primary energy pathways for global mixing and create a local energy budget.
From Tides to Mixing Along the Hawaiian Ridge
PADS 50kHz 2002 OPG originally developed 200kHz PADS (Phased Array Doppler Sonars) in order to be able to take three-dimensional measurements of the oceanic velocity field. In 2002, OPG developed a 16 beam 50kHz PADS system, in order to be able to image the sea surface at ranges of 1.5 km or greater at a resolution where internal wave signals could be resolved.
project description
HOME (Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment) Far Field 2000 The HOME Farfield program was designed to measure the energy budget of the farfield barotropic and low-mode baroclinic tides for the Hawaiian Ridge and quantify the tidal power dissipated in the nearfield of the ridge.
project description
additional information
Sea of Japan 2000 During a collaborative research cruise in the Japan/East Sea, OPG tested two new pulse-coded doppler sonars that were able to give velocity up to 1500 m.
deployment website
additional website
SHEBA 1997-1998 The SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) project was a year-long exploration to investigate and understand the physics of the surface heat budget and ice-to-sea ratio of the Arctic ocean, in order to obtain a better model of global climate change.
project description
SandyDuck 1997 During SandyDuck '97, a collaborative research mission in Duck, North Carolina, OPG deployed two 200kHz PADS systems in order to test and refine their technique of usage and discover their limitations. The data collected by the PADS was used to document horizontalcirulation patterns near the surf zone.
project website (See Observations of waves and currebts near the surf zone)
The Marine Boundary Layer 1995 The Marine Boundary Layer Experiment consisted of two month long cruises during the winter and spring of 1995 in the North Pacific. Researchers from numerous institutions were stationed on the research platform FLIP to study atmospheric/ocean interactions.
Observations of Coherent Structures in the Oceanic Boundary Layer
SIMI (Sea Ice Mechanics Initiative) 1993-1994 SIMI placed scientists on the cold Arctic Ocean in the winter of 1993/1994 to study the complex dynamics under the winter ice pack.
related publication: Internal wave variability in the Beaufort Sea during the winter of 1993/1994
Toga-Coare (Tropical Ocean Global Atmospere - Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Experiment) 1992-1993 Toga-Coare was a multi-institutional experiment which took place from Nov. 1992 to Mar. 1993 in the West Pacific warm pool. Research was centered on tropical ocean dynamics and its control of regional and global climates.
Semidiurnal tides observed in the western equatorial Pacific during the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment
LeadEx (The Arctic Leads Experiment) 1992 LeadEx took place in March and April of 1992 over 160 kilometers North of Deadhorse, Alaska, on the Arctic Ocean. Scientists were interested in the atmospheric/oceanic interactions at the separations, or leads, of the Arctic ice pack.
Probing the interior of Arctic leads: Investigations using high-frequency sound

SWAPP (The Surface Waves and Processes Program)

1990 SWAPP was designed to study air-sea and surface wave-upper ocean interactions. Researchers were stationed aboard the research platform FLIP, 500 kilometers off Point Conception in February and March of 1990.
more info